Exam Time: Friday, 11th September 2020
Fisheries (Alternative B) 2 (Essay)** – 2:30 p.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Fisheries (Alternative B) 1 (Objective)** – 4:30 p.m. – 5:10 p.m.

Animal Husbandry (Alternative B) 2 (Essay) – 2:00pm – 4:00pm
Animal Husbandry (Alternative B) 1(Objective) – 4:00pm – 5:00pm





Hand mating: This is the controlled mating in which the time and mating individual are selected by the breeder

Pen mating: This consist of one male with a selected group of females in a single pen

Pasture mating: Ths is an uncontrolled mating within a flock or herd in a pasture

-Hand mating:
(i) Some females can be forcefully bred.
(ii) It takes time to prepare

-Pen mating:
(i) It lowers conception rates
(ii) It has less predictable breeding dates

-Pasture mating:
(i) Lack of an accurate conception date for calculation of a potential
(ii) It promotes spread of disease through the herd

-Pasture mating
(i) Decreased expenses for personal
(ii) Decreased breeding expenses

-Pen mating
(i) Less labour
(ii) Increase risky boar overuse

-Hand mating
(i) Mating can be scheduled and confirmed
(ii) Hand breeding offers less risk to the stallion

(i) Artificial vagina
(ii) Electroejaculation

Monogastric means having a simple single-chambered stomach.

(i) Horses
(ii) Rabbits

Concentrate: This is a feed used with another to improve the nutritive balance of the total and intended to be further diluted and mixed to produce a supplement or a complete feed

Additive: This is an ingredient or combination of ingredients added to the basic feed mix or parts thereof to fulfil a specific need.

(i) It stimulates the muscles in the wall of the rumen to contract and expand,
(ii) For maintenance of normal hindgut function
(iii) It helps in digestion
(iv) It contains lot of nutrients

(i) milking machines
(ii) claws
(iii) bucket milkers
(iv) hand milking

(i) cattle
(ii) sheep

(i) Fowl
(ii) Duck


(i) Eye
(ii) Nose

(i) heart
(ii) diaphragm

(i) Caecum
(ii) Bladder

(i) Caecum: Absorbs fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion and absorption

(ii) Gizzard: Aids in digestion by particle size reduction, chemical degradation of nutrients and regulation of feed flow, and responds rapidly to changes in the coarseness of the diet.

(iii) Crop: It is used to store food temporarily before moving it on to the stomach.

(iv) Rumen: It stores food that a ruminant regurgitates, chews again and swallows a second time.

(v) Lung: Its function is to deliver oxygen to the blood stream in exchange for carbon dioxide

(i) Checking body temperature
(ii) Measuring the body mass
(iii) Measuring the growth
(iv) Checking their activeness
(v) Checking the way they eat
(vi) Checking their teeth

(i) Camels
(ii) Donkey
(iii) Zebra

Fodder: This is a type of animal feed or any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits

Paddocking: This is a rotational grazing whereby livestock are moved to portions of the pasture, called paddocks, while the other portions rest

Reseeding: This is planting seeds of grasses and legumes in a depleted rangeland to improve the quality of the pasture with improved seeds of legumes and grasses.

Stocking rate: This is the basic relationship between livestock and the forage resource.

Natural pasture: This is usually on land unsuited to arable cropping because of stoniness, seasonal waterlogging, slope or a short growing season, or due to pattern of rainfall distribution or temperature.

(i) Soil type
(ii) drainage
(iii) temperature
(iv) land tenure system

(i) It reduces the quality of livestock
(ii) Certain poisonous weeds like Datura may cause death of cattle if they are unknowingly eaten by cattle
(iii) Weeds harbour insect, pests and diseases that disturbs the livestocks
(iv) Weeds like gokhru get attached to the body of the sheep and impair the quality of wool.
(v) Effect of weed on livestock will lower income rate

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Fish processing involves converting fishes material into final fish products while fish preservation involves preserving processed or unprocessed fish or fish product for future use by means of controlling environment or any other measures to prolong shelf life of fish.

(i) Scaling: Steps involved are denaturation and loosening of the mucous layer and outer protein structures of the skin, followed by enzymatic degradation of the outer skin structures, and finally washing off the scales with water jets. In the process, the fish is incubated in a specially designed incubation tank filled with a slightly acidified water solution of the descaling enzyme, a collagenase.

(ii) Gutting: This begins with careful descaling from the tail to the head; then cutting it with a knife from a small hole in the stomach along the entire body length to the head, remove the gills and use them to remove the gut. Carefully cut out the swamp of blood along the central bone.

(iii) Filleting: This is done by cutting or slicing away the flesh of a fish from the bone by cutting lengthwise along one side of the fish parallel to the backbone.

(i) It is the most common and cheapest animal protein source to mankind especially among the poor dwellers in Nigeria
(ii) Fish is an important source of food
(iii) Fisheries is a source of income
(iv) Fisheries provides employment

(i) storage
(ii) sorting
(iii) packaging

(i) Water Quality
(ii) Land topography
(iii) Temperature

(i) It affects the growth rate of fishes
(ii) High mineral turbidity can affect fish directly by injuring their breathing organs


(i) Earthen ponds
(ii) Raceway
(iii) Tanks
(iv) Concrete ponds

(i) Nets
(ii) Hook and Line
(iii) Traps
(iv) Grappling Devices

(i) paddler
(ii) Canoe Seats
(iii) Thwarts
(iv) Gun wale

(i)Paddler: It is used for moving the canoe
(ii)Canoe seats: These are used for sitting
(iii)Thwarts: These are mounted to the gunnels to provide added structural support for the canoe,
(iv)Gun wale: It provide a mounting surface to mount thing

(i) floats
(ii) Lead sinker
(iii) Net
(iv) Hooks

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